Warren Carter is a New Testament scholar who has written extensively on the Gospel of John and the historical Jesus. In his book "John and Empire: Initial Explorations," Carter argues that the Gospel of John was written in the context of the Roman Empire, and that it reflects the social, political, and religious tensions of its time.
Regarding the story of the Raising of Lazarus, Carter suggests that it should be read as a "sign" or "miracle" story that conveys a theological message, rather than as a straightforward historical account. He notes that the story contains several elements that are characteristic of miracle stories in the ancient world, such as the emphasis on eyewitness testimony and the portrayal of Jesus as a powerful wonder-worker.
Carter also points out that the story of Lazarus appears only in the Gospel of John, which was written later than the other three canonical gospels. He suggests that this may indicate that the story was a later addition to the Christian tradition, rather than a historical account of a specific event.
Overall, while Carter does not explicitly argue that the story of Lazarus is entirely fictional, he approaches it with a critical eye and suggests that its historicity may be called into question.